Alternatives to Arrest

Arrest Statistics.” Easy Access to FBI Arrest Statistics. (August 2017)

As Arrest Records Rise, Americans Find Consequences Can Last a Lifetime.” The Wall Street Journal. (August 2014)

Pre-Arrest Diversion

Pre-Arrest Diversion Programs: The Future of Policing.” Police Foundation. (No date provided)

How this helps Latinos and noncitizens

Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Secure Communities (SC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP).” U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. (No date provided)

A Price Too High: U.S. Families Torn Apart by Deportations for Drug Offenses.” Human Rights Watch. (June 2015)

Nonserious Marijuana Offenses and Noncitizens: Uncounseled Pleas and Disproportionate Consequences.”UCLA Law Review. (2015)

PAD Programs at Work

Pre-Arrest Diversion A Public Health Solution to Better Public Safety.” Center for Health and Justice at TASC.(February 2018)

Memorandum of Understanding APAD.” Law Enforcement Agencies of Pinellas County, Florida. (No date provided)

Neighborhood Justice Program (NPJ).”Los Angeles City Attorney. (No date provided)

The Intake Prosecutor: Prosecutorial Screening Before the Police Make Warrantless Arrests.” William & Mary Law School. (September 2017)

Community Action Plan.” Harris County District Attorney’s Office. (2017)

Evaluating the Impact of Direct Electronic Filing in Criminal Cases: Closing the Paper Trap.” The Office of Court Administration Task Force on Indigent Defense. (July 2006)

Justice on the Line: Prosecutorial Screening Before Arrest.” William & Mary Law School. (March 2018)

Examples of PAD Programs

 “Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD).” King County, Washington. 

Welcome to Evergreen Treatment Services (ETS).” Evergreen Treatment Services, Seattle, Washington. 

The Police Assisted Addiction and Recovery Initiative (PAARI).” Gloucester and Arlington, Massachusetts. 

STEER Deflection Model: Pre-booking Diversion Option for Law Enforcement.”Montgomery County, Maryland. 

Drug Abuse Response Team (DART).” Lucas County Sheriff’s Office, Ohio. 

Pre-arrest Diversion as a Public Health Policy  

The Police, Treatment and Community Collaborative (PTAC Collaborative).” Center for Health and Justice at TASC. (No date provided)

Pre-Arrest Diversion: Pathways to Community.” Police, Treatment and Community Collaborative (PTAC). (August 2017)

Implementation Quick Start Guide: Warm Handoff.” Agency for Healthcare, Research, and Quality (AHRQ). (April 2017)

Citations: Lessening the Costs and Consequences of Low-Level Offenses  

Citation in Lieu of Arrest

Citation in Lieu of Arrest.” National Conference of State Legislatures. (October 2017)

Jail or No Jail: Alternatives to Arrest and Prosecution for Low-Level Offenders.” Texas Public Policy Foundation. (July 2015)

Unintended Consequences of Cite and Release Policies.” National Center for State Courts and SEARCH.(June 2013)

50State Chart | Citation in Lieu of Arrest.” National Conference of State Legislatures. (October 2017)

Impact on Latinos and Immigrants

How to Cut Down on Searches in Traffic Stops: Legalize Pot.” The Marshall Project. (June 2017)

Immigration Laws and Current State Immigration Legislation.” National Conference of State Legislatures. (April 2018)

Changing the nature of the offense and its penalty

How Much Does NYPD Spend on Misdemeanor Arrests?” Newsweek. (December 2014)

Misdemeanors.” University of California, Irvine School of Law. (February 2012)


Bill Would Decriminalize Unlicensed Driving.” The Spokesman Review - Idaho. (December 1997)

House Bill No. 466.” Idaho State Legislature. (1998)

New Law Reduces Penalties for Driving Without License.” WPRI Eyewitness News - Rhode Island. (July 2016)

§ 31-11-18. Driving after denial, suspension, or revocation of license.” State of Rhode Island. (2016)

SB 6189 - 2017-18: Changing driving a motor vehicle with a suspended or revoked driver's license provisions.” Washington State Legislature. (June 2018)

Washington Lawmakers Consider Decriminalizing Driving Without A License.” NW News Network. (January 2018)

States Offering Driver’s Licenses to Immigrants.” National Conference of State Legislatures. (November 2016)

California surpasses 1 million driver’s licenses for undocumented immigrants.” The Mercury News. (April 2018)

Public Transit

SFMTA Announces Decriminalization of Transit Citations.” San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. (February 2008)

SB-882 Crimes: public transportation: minors.” California State Legislature. (August 2016)

For Manhattan Fare Beaters, One-Way Ticket to Court May Be Over.” The New York Times. (June 2017)

Mayor de Blasio Argues Against Decriminalizing Subway Turnstile Jumping.” Curbed New York. (August 2017)

MTA Chairman Urges Against Decriminalizing Subway Turnstile Jumping.” Curbed New York. (February 2018)

Street Vending

Chicago’s Food Cart Ban Costs Revenue, Jobs.” Illinois Policy Institute. (August 2015)

Is Chicago’s New Pushcart Ban Really About Pedestrian Safety?” Next City. (November 2015)

For L.A. Street Vendors, a Step Toward Legality.” CITYLAB.(February 2017)

LA's Moves To Protect Immigrant Street-Food Vendors Come With A Catch.” NPR. (February 2017)

National Street Vending Initiative.” Institute for Justice. (No date provided)


Drug War Statistics.” Drug Policy Alliance. (June 2018)

13 States Have Decriminalized — But Not Legalized — Marijuana.” Vox. (April 2018) 

State Marijuana Laws in 2018 Map.” Governing. (March 2018)

Law to Decriminalize Marijuana, Hash in Pittsburgh Takes Effect.” Pittsburgh’s Action News 4. (January 2017)

Atlanta Is The Latest U.S. City to Decriminalize Marijuana. Here's What That Means.” Fortune. (October 2017)

City of Atlanta Georgia Ordinance17-O-1152.” Atlanta City Council. (September 2017)

Five Things to Know About Kansas City’s New Marijuana Law.” The Kansas City Star. (April 2017)

Court Reforms

Reforming Bench Warrants

Bench Warrant.” Legal Information Institute – Cornell Law School. (No date provided)

Policing the Houseless 2.0: Arrests by the LAPD (2012-2017).” Million Dollar Hoods - Ralph J. Bunche Center for African American Studies at UCLA. (No date provided)

Building Momentum from the Ground Up: A Toolkit for Promoting Justice in Policing.” The Center for Popular Democracy and PolicyLink. (April 2015)

SB 176: Georgia Council on Criminal Justice Reform; driving privileges; enact reforms.” Georgia State Legislature. (2017)

Gov. Deal Signs Criminal Justice Reform Legislation.” Atlanta Patch. (May 2017)

Amnesty Day declared for traffic warrants in Baton Rouge.” The Washington Times. (December 2015)

QuickFacts: Baton Rouge city, Louisiana.” U.S. Census Bureau. (July 2017)

SB-185 Crimes: infractions.” California State Legislature. (2017-18)

Becoming a Culturally Competent Court.” The Court Manager. (March 2007)

Fines and Fees

Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices: State Resource Guide Map.” National Center for State Courts. (June 2018) 

Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department.” United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. (March 2015) 

Quick Facts: Ferguson city, Missouri.” U.S. Census Bureau. (July 2016) 

Ferguson City Council Announces New Programs to Reduce Community Concerns.” City of Ferguson. (September 2014) 

58,000 California Drivers have Traffic Fines and Court Fees Cut Under Amnesty.” Los Angeles Times. (March 15, 2016)

Big Changes Recommended for California’s Traffic Court.” SF Gate. (May 2017)

The Promise of Sanctuary Cities and the Need for Criminal Justice Reforms in an Era of Mass Deportation.” Immigrant Legal Resource Center. (May 2017)

TimeBanks.” TimeBanks USA. (No date provided)

Dane County TimeBank.” Dane County TimeBank - Wisconsin. (No date provided)

Additional Resources

How to Use Structured Fines (Day Fines) as an Intermediate Sanction.” Bureau of Justice Assistance. (November 1996)

Task Force Products.” National Task Force on Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices – National Center for State Courts. (No date provided)

Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices: State Resource Guide Map.” National Center for State Courts. (June 2018) 

Court Fees: A Curated Collection of Links.” The Marshall Project. (June 2018)

Use of Court Date Reminder Notices to Improve Court Appearance Rates.” Pretrial Justice Center for Courts. (September 2017)