Examples of PAD Programs
Program name
Target population
Pathway to intervention
Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) Seattle and larger King County, Washington
LEAD is a nationally recognized program that diverts low-level offenders into nonprofit treatment and services. It began in 2011 and is a collaboration of many law enforcement, community and philanthropic stakeholders. The LEAD® National Support Bureau  provides technical support to many sites which have launched LEAD programs across the country.
Drug users and prostitutes in specific geographic areas  Officer prevention, officer intervention
Angel Program Gloucester, Massachusetts
In June 2015, Gloucester Police Department launched the Angel Program  which reframed addiction as a disease. The program allows people to turn themselves, drugs and paraphernaliain to police without fear of arrest. While awaiting services, they are connected with a volunteer peer “angel” who talks with them over the phone while they await transfer to treatment. PAARI  was founded as a nonprofit alongside the Angel Program to help create new programs and provide technical assistance to programs that help prevent overdose and expand access to treatment and recovery.
Low-risk, high-need offenders with mental health or addiction needs Self-referral 
Arlington Outreach Program Arlington, Massachusetts
Through Arlingon Outreach the Arlington Police Department actively reaches out to overdose victims and other drug-users. Upon arresting drug dealers, police often acquire a list of customers. A public health clinician working in the police department contacts these customers to offer services. Those contacted do not face charges even if they refuse treatment. The program is also supported by PAARI.
Drug users, emphasis on opioids Active outreach 
Stop, Triage, Engage, Educate and Rehabilitate (STEER) Montgomery County, Maryland
STEER was launched in 2016 as a partnership of the county, police, treatment providers and researchers. Officers conduct a risk and needs assessment in the field, using tested assessment tools, to determine if someone is eligible for diversion to treatment without arrest. Charges are held in abeyance if treatment is fulfilled.
Low-risk, high-need offenders with mental health or addiction needs  Officer prevention, officer intervention,
Naloxone plus
Drug Abuse Response Team (DART) Lucas County, Ohio
DART is a unit of the Lucas County Sheriff’s Office. It was launched in 2014, as the first PAD effort of its kind in the country. DART officers meet with overdose victims to connect them to treatment, and work with these individuals and their families, providing continued support for up to two years. They focus on education and intervention to combat the opioid epidemic in Northwest Ohio.
Drug users, emphasis on opioids  Naloxone plus