Resources
 

Reducing Jail Populations

Percent of People in Jail Who are Pre-trial/Unconvicted.” Prison Policy Initiative. (2017)

Era of Mass Expansion: Why State Officials Should Fight Jail Growth.” Prison Policy Initiative. (May 2017)

 

Pretrial Services

Risk assessment tools

Pretrial Risk Assessment: Science Providing Guidance on Assessing Defendants.” Pretrial Justice Institute. (May 2015)

Kentucky Tests New Assessment Tool to Determine Whether to Keep Defendants Behind Bars.” American Bar Association Journal. (April 2015)

 

Risk scores and racial bias

Risk-assessment algorithms challenged in bail, sentencing and parole decisions.” American Bar Association Journal. (March 2017)

Top Takeaways from Smart Pretrial in Yakima County, Washington.” Pretrial Justice Institute.(February 2018)

Moving Beyond Money: A Primer on Bail Reform.” Criminal Justice Policy Program – Harvard Law School. (October 2016)

Machine Bias: There’s software used across the country to predict future criminals. And it’s biased against blacks.” ProPublica.(May 2016)

Algorithms in the Criminal Justice System: Assessing the Use of Risk Assessments in Sentencing.” Responsive Communities Initiative, Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society - Harvard Law School. (2017)

Public Safety Assessment: Risk Factors and Formula.” Laura and John Arnold Foundation.(No date provided)

Arnold Foundation Launches Expansion of Public Safety Assessment Tool.”The Crime Report. (April 2018)

Risk assessment examples

Pretrial Services.” Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. (No date provided)

FACT SHEET: Launching the Data-Driven Justice Initiative: Disrupting the Cycle of Incarceration.” The White House – President Barack Obama.(July 2015)

Kentucky Tests New Assessment Tool to Determine Whether to Keep Defendants Behind Bars.” American Bar Association Journal. (April 2015)

Pretrial Supervision

Pretrial Supervision.”Pretrial Justice Institute.(No date provided)

Smart Pretrial.” Pretrial Justice Institute.(No date provided)

Pretrial services examples

New Jersey Alters Its Bail System and Upends Legal Landscape.” The New York Times. (February 2017)

Criminal Justice Reform Information Center.” New Jersey Courts. (No date provided)

Office of Pretrial Services Overview.” County of Santa Clara Office of Pretrial Services. (May 2018)

History of Pretrial Services in Santa Clara County.” County of Santa Clara Office of Pretrial Services. (September 2017)

Bail Reform is Overdue in California. Here’s a Better, Fairer, Safer Way.” The Sacramento Bee. (March 2018)

Own Recognizance (OR).”Legal Information Institute - Cornell Law School. (No date provided)

County of Santa Clara Launches Campaign to Inform Detainees of Free Alternatives to Paying Bail.” County of Santa Clara Office of Pretrial Services. (December 2017)

 “Santa Clara County Launches Campaign to Inform Public of Free Alternatives to Paying Bail.” The Mercury News. (December 2017)

Bail Reform

Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2009 - Statistical Tables.” U.S. Department of Justice – Bureau of Justice Statistics. (December 2013)

FACT SHEET: Launching the Data-Driven Justice Initiative: Disrupting the Cycle of Incarceration.” The White House – President Barack Obama.(July 2015)

Welcome to Wex, LII's Community-Built, Freely Available Legal Dictionary and Legal Encyclopedia.”Legal Information Institute - Cornell Law School. (No date provided)

The History of Bail and Pretrial Release.” Pretrial Justice Institute. (September 2010)

The Heavy Costs of High Bail: Evidence from Judge Randomization.” The Journal of Legal Studies.(June 2016)

Fines, Fees and Bail Practices: State Resource Guide.” National Center for State Courts. (June 2018)

County Jails at a Crossroads: An Examination of the Jail Population and Pretrial Release.” National Association of Counties. (2015)

A Nearly Perfect System for Convicting the Innocent.” University of Chicago Law School. (2017)

The Heavy Costs of High Bail: Evidence from Judge Randomization.” University of Chicago Press. (June 2016)

Latinos and noncitizens    

Pretrial Release of Latino Defendants.” Pretrial Justice Institute.(September 2008)

The Economic State of the Latino Community in America.” Joint Economic Committee – United States Congress.(October 2016)

Quick Facts: Yakima County, Washington.” U.S. Census Bureau. (July 2017)

Top Takeaways from Smart Pretrial in Yakima County, Washington.” Pretrial Justice Institute.(February 2018)

Examples and successes

New Jersey Alters Its Bail System and Upends Legal Landscape.” The New York Times. (February 2017)

Report to the Governor and the Legislature 2017: One Year Justice Reform.” New Jersey Judiciary. (2017)

 “Public Safety Assessment: A Risk Tool that Promotes Safety, Equity, and Justice.” Laura and John Arnold Foundation. (August 2017)

The Good News: N.J. Bail Overhaul is Working. The Bad News: It's Already Going Broke.” NJ.com. (February 2018)

The New Jersey Pretrial Justice Manual – 2016.” University of Pretrial. (December 2016)

New Jersey’s Money Bail Overhaul: A Success Story.” Brave New Films.(February 2018)

Court Ruling Could Change State’s Approach to Bail.” SF Gate. (January 2018)

Ending Wealth-Based Detention in California.” Civil Rights Corps. (No date provided)

Bail Reform is Overdue in California. Here’s a Better, Fairer, Safer Way.” The Sacramento Bee. (March 2018)

Kentucky’s Protracted Struggle to Get Rid of Bail.” The Marshall Project. (November 2015)